CSTE Q&A.doc

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Q1) The QAI is starting a project to put the CSTE certification online. They will use an automated process for recording candidate information, scheduling candidates for exams, keeping track of results and sending out certificates. Write a brief test plan for this new project?


Test plan of the above will consist of:
a) Objective: To automate the CSTE certification online

b) Identifier: CSTE-AUT/1/India

c) References: Records of earlier CSTE Exams held
Names of the people involved in earlier exams held
CBOK, exam material, application forms, certification

d) Test Items:

The forms of the site for application, re-scheduling, postponing exam etc.
On line tutorials.
Help support provided
CSTE main exam links

e) Risks:



Unauthorized access of the application
Databases Integrity
Redundancy, Configuration management,
portability, Maintainability
Ease of use, ease of operation.

f) Testing Strategy:

White box testing
Black box testing
Stress testing,

Performance testing
Configuration Management,
System testing, Security Testing,
( can add some more techniques for testing)

g) Acceptance Criteria:

Criteria for exit like the requirements specified by user are met fully, the site is fault free, and the application for the main exam is working fine. The functionality is fully satisfied.

h) Suspension or Reject Criteria:

Testing cannot progress if any of the test items do not satisfy all the input data is provided. Enough time is provided.

i) Schedules:

 Schedules given here for each type of testing and reporting results.

j) Environmental Needs:

Tools required for testing. Connectivity provided. Recovery data provided.

k) Training Needs:

 Training of the testers, training of the personnel

l) Approval:

 Approval of the management, users.

m) Glossary:

All the vocabulary support, data dictionaries etc.

 Q2) The five dimensions of the Risks are?


a) Technology Integration - What kind of technology are we using a new hardware/software technology. We may not have enough expertise on that. The

technology might not be time proven yet.

 b) Size and Complexity - The Size and the Complexity of the application. e.g Banking applications are huge and more complex

 c) System Environment and Stability - Env (e.g web based might not be stable)

 d) Criticality/Mission Impact - Life critical applications like medical equipment simulation, flight simulation are highly critical. Financial, e-banking are critical as per the financial aspect

 e) Reliability and Integrity - Finally, the application must be reliable and must do what it is intended for...


Q3) Explain testing life cycle?


Test Analysis---Test Plan---Test case Design---Test Execution---Test

Log--------Test Report.





Tracking                                                 Defect

 Q4) How would u prepare the Test plan for the Project?



The requirements are given clearly to u, stating that u have to prepare

Plan for CSTE certification Online by

1. Recording candidate information

2. Scheduling candidates for exams

3. Keeping track of results and

4. Sending out certificates


Test Plan covering the details


1. Who is going to prepare the plan?

2. Which is your reference document for preparing the Plan?

3. What SDLC the project is going to attain in that when testing comes.

4. When Testing starts for each module of the application.

5. What type of testing (Manual or Automation?)

6. Who is going to test it?

7. When he is going to test it

8. Which tools you’re going to use?

9. Plan or give date if training is need for Tools

10. What are the Deliverables?

11. What is the knowledge of the application by the Tester, check if

Training is needed.

12. What level of testing is going to be done?

13. When Test Cases is going to prepared

14. Who is going to review it?

15. Who the Defect Report is reported?


Q5) what activity is done in Acceptance Testing, which is not done in System testing to ensure the Customer requirements?


Main objective of both system and acceptance testing is ensure all the functionalities and requirement are implemented correctly or not. In Acceptance testing. real time test data is used, usually acceptance testing is done by client or clients representative. Here client will check the all functionalities. But in System testing. - project team and testing team should do testing.  Here we have to do all system testing like load, stress, performance etc.  - Its not mandatory that we have to use real time data again its depends on the type of application.

a) Acceptance test is executed by users where as system test is executed by the testers.
b) Acceptance test is the responsibility of the client and is a final check point to accept or reject the software.
c)Acceptance testing involves the actual production environment where as system testing simulates the production environment

d) Acceptance testing involves testing the acceptance test criteria mentioned in the Acceptance test plan and verifying that the product meets those criteria where as system test involves testing the entire system and verifying the performance as a whole.
e) System test is carried out when the entire system is ready where as acceptance tests can be carried out at pre - defined intervals.

 Q6) "The top management was feeling that when there are any changes in the technology being used, development schedules etc, it is a waste of time to update the Test Plan also from time to time. Instead, they are emphasizing that you should put your time into testing than working on the test plan.  Your Project Manager asked for your opinion. You have argued that Test Plan is very important and you need to update your test plan from time to time. It is not at all a waste of time and testing activities would be more effective when you have your plan clear. Explain with some metrics; how you would support your argument to have the test plan in place all the time."?


Testing is a process and needs planning; too. The test plan serves as a contract between QA and the project team. It serves as the foundation for the QA team. If you don't plan, plan to fail. QA will not be able to verify the test coverage of the new technology if it is not addressed in the test plan. Further, the test plan will address how the technology will be tested in regards to test factors and if the technology will negatively impact other features.

Without a test plan, we don’t know

a)     What we are going to do

b)     How we are going to do it

c)     How long will it take

d)     Resources required

e)     Cost

Without a documented test plan

a)     The test can not be verified

b)     Coverage can not be analyzed

c)     The test is not repeatable

d)     Test can not be controlled

e)     Test plan is a tool to verify or confirm requirement

f)       Review of test plan can identify gaps and missing or vague requirement

g)     Test plan ensures that each requirement is testable

h)     Planning helps in selection of test cases

i)        Test plan is a dynamic document like any other plan

j)       Test plan defines overall testing objectives and approach

k)      Test design defines what is selected to test and describes expected results


If we keep the TestPlan up-to-date, it will enable:

a) Keep a track of all deliverables as defined in test plan with any
slippages in their schedules. If any slippages are occurring, take
preventive actions. Also enable to estimate  h/w and manpower
resources/efforts, based on technological changes.

b) Test progress S curve (plan,attempted,actual testcases) shall give
a fair indication of the status of testing activity.

c) Technological changes might lead to changes in test strategies.
An updated test plan would enable effective testing coz strategy would
be well defined and updated

d) Ascertain when the testing activity should stop

e) Estimate correct value of Code coverage (Percentage of lines of
code executed per total lines of code) and take necessary action to
test components that cover less code
f) Serve as a basis for testing a similar kind of application in future

 Q7) Short form for 11 Quality Factors: - MICE UR FlIRT (not exam related)


M: Maintainability

I: Integrity

C: Correctness

E: Efficiency

U: Usability

R: Reliability

Fl: Flexibility

I: Interoperability

R: Reusability

T: Testability

Q8) What fields would you include in creating a new defect tracking program (used by QA, developers, etc)? (25 points)


It should content following fields:-

Defect Id

Status:- New, Active, Fixed, Resolve, Duplicate, By Design, Closed, Reopen

Assigned to

Source of Defect (Test case or other source)

Stage of origination





R&D comments

Reproducible Yes/No

Severity: - Low, Medium, High, Very High, Urgent

Priority: - Low, Medium, High, Very High, Urgent

Detected By

Detected date

Detected in version

Closed in version

Screen print & Logs etc.

Q9) What 3 tools would you purchases for your company for use in testing and justify why you would want them? (this question is in both essay parts, only rephrased. I think 10 points each time)


# Test management tool  - (Optional)

    why because : Helps in :
                    - Saving time in the creation and duplication of test scripts 
                    -Staffing decisions accurately 
                    -Testing process and implementation
                    - Maintaining documentation and implementation to meet the

                    - Taking corrective steps before the system goes live
                    - Tracking specific information about individual test scripts
                    - Getting updates on daily testing activities
                    - Record test results and produce statistical reports on test   results
# Unit test tool -

       Why because:
           unit test must be performed by the programmers and each class   implemented must have programmer-developed unit tests, for everything that "could possibly break". These tests are to be written during coding of the class, preferably right before implementing a given feature. Tests are run as frequently as possible during development, and all unit tests in the entire system must be running at 100% before any developer releases his code.

# functional/regression test tool -

    If I adopt this tool then i can reduce risks and make the most of limited resources by implementing automated functional and regression testing of critical applications, whereby development and QA teams create reusable test assets that provide in-depth defect analysis and expedite resolution of defects.

    Why because:

         -It will ensure that the quality at every step of delivery
         -It will fill the gap between the development and testing teams
         -it will quickly identify and correct problems and cost- effective

 # Load and stress tool -

    Why because

          It will help us to interpret the data, and point at the most likely performance problems.

# Bug tracking tool -(Optional)

     Why because:

        It is quite hard to keep track of what bugs have been raised, and which of them have been fixed. As well as automating this process, bug tracking tools make it extremely easy to analyze projects using metrics and reports


Q10) what are the points to be emphasized in testing of a system which has multiple workstations for inputting (as against a single workstation system)?


a)     Seduconcurrancy testing :- When one user or console is updating /adding /deleting a record other user should not be allowed to process the same record - Other user should be in wait state

b)     Load test / stress test should be done

c)     Recovery test should be done

d)     Performance testing: - Response time/Transaction completion time

e)     Data validation: - Check if data is saved in correct order, data retrieval is correct

f)       Access control

g)     Database security

h)     Concurrent user test

i)        Update and Rollback

j)       Response time and Server connectivity

Q11) Write Test plan considerations for ….new e-business solution


Understanding the ecommerce could have a huge financial impact on a company if not conducted properly.  Also the fact that the infrastructure is not in place for the company also will require additional testing.  The types of tests I would conduct include the following:


Structural Test

a) Stress - for the project volumes of transactions and number of users.  It is key to know where the limits of the application exist.

b)       Execution

c)       Recovery - With financial transactions it is important to know a system can stop mid transaction and when it comes back up is able to return to processing when it comes back up.

d)       Security - Internal and external security

Functional Test

a.                   Requirements

b.                   Error Handling

c.                   Intersystem


a) Security

b) Performance

c) Correctness

d) Compatibility

e) Reliability

f) Authentication

g) Privacy and Protection of Information
h) Fraud and Misrepresentation
i) Reliability of trading partners
j) Technology Risk

Personnel are involved:

 a) Internal Auditor
b) Risk consultant
c) Data Processor
d) Security Officer
e) Computer operations manager

 12)  When to stop testing?

Ans12: When the test manager is confident that the application will perform as expected in the production environment. This confidence is derived by analysis conducted on:

a)                 Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.) are met

b)                 Test cases completed with certain percentage passed

c)                 Test budget depleted

d)                 Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point

e)                        Meantime between failures

f)                   Risks associated with continuing to test

g)                        Percentage of coverage achieved

h)                        Number of open defects and their severity

i)                    Risk associated with move to production


Q13)  State 4 reasons: Why to test the software?


a)                 To uncover the bugs

b)                 Improve the quality prior to sales

c)                 To check the performance of application in

d)                 To ensure that application is as per user requirement

e)                 To reduce the failure cost

f)                   To reduce the risk

g)                 To build the confidence in to software

Q14) Define and Give examples for a] Boundary Value Analysis b] Equivalence Partitioning c] Error Guessing?


a] Boundary Value Analysis:- It is a test data selection technique in which input data is selected from the input and output boundaries of a given functions. It is a technique that consists of developing test cases and data that focus on the input and output boundaries of a given function.

Example: - Salary should be between 10,000 and 15,000. so test data should be between

Low boundary plus or minus (9,999 & 10,001)

On the boundary (10,000 & 15,000)

Upper boundary plus or minus (14,999 & 15,001)


b] Equivalence Partitioning:-An equivalence class is a subset of data which representative of larger class. Equivalence partitioning is a technique for testing equivalence classes rather than under taking exhaustive testing of each volume of larger class.

Example: - A program which edits credit limits within a given range ($10,000 - $15,000) would have three equivalence classes

Less than 10,000 (Invalid)

Between 10,000 & 15,000 (Valid)

Greater than 15,000(Invalid)

 c] Error Guessing

Error guessing is based on the theory that test cases can be developed based upon the intuition and experience of test engineer.


Where one of the inputs is date a test engineer may try February 29, 2004 or 9/9/99

 Q15) Write standards for test plan, test script, test report.              15 marks


Test Plan (Make this in table format)

 a)     Preface

b)     Executive Summary

c)     Introduction of the Project

d)     Organization of Document

e)     Test Organization

f)       Test Techniques

g)     Test Tools

h)     Acceptance Criteria

i)        Glossary

 Test Script

a)     Date of Test Conducted

b)     Type of Test Conducted 

c)     Serial Number

d)     Statement to Execute

e)     Expected Result

f)       Actual Result

g)     Remark

 Test Report

a)     Name of the Project

b)     Name of the Module/Subsystem

c)     Type of the Testing

d)     In the Heading Present the total number of Defects

e)     Graphical Analysis of Test Result visa Histogram or so….

 Q16) Your customer doesn’t know how to prepare acceptance test plan. Write contents of the acceptance test plan for his guidance.               15 marks


Acceptance criteria should include success criteria for:

a)                  Functional Requirements -which relate to the business rules that the system must execute

b)                  Performance Requirements which relate to operational requirements such as time or resource constraints

c)                  Interfacing quality Requirements-which relate to a connection to another component of processing(human/machine-machine/module)

d)                  Overall Software Quality requirements –are those that specify limits for factors or attributes such as reliability, testability, correctness and usability

 - Project description

- Scope
- User roles and responsibilities
- Acceptance criteria
- Test cases to be executed
 Acceptance Criterion 
No    Acceptance req                    Critical                   Result              Remark
                                                 Yes     No         Accept        Reject
1   Login time 
 - should not be                                 Yes               Yes                   Accept               
more than 6 sec                  
2.  Concurrent users (min 40 Users)      Yes                Reject             Only 30 works
-----------------------------------------------------------------------Q17) Explain any 5 Test Metrics (10 Marks)

Test Coverage = Number of units (KLOC/FP) tested / total size of the system

Test cost (in %) = Cost of testing / total cost *100

Cost to locate defect = Cost of testing / the number of defects located

Defects detected in testing (in %) = Defects detected in testing / total system defects*100

Acceptance criteria tested = Acceptance criteria tested / total acceptance criteria

Q18) Write a Test transaction for a scenario where 6.2% of tax deduction for the first $62,000 of income has to be done?


For test transaction need to be consider Lower boundary, On the boundary and Upper boundary while creating scenario.

a)     Check if 6.2% tax deduction is calculated for income less than $62,000.

b)     Check if 6.2% tax deduction is calculated for income equal to $62,000

c)     Check if 6.2% tax deduction is not calculated for income more than $62,000. (Because in the question he mentioned clearly that it’s for the first $62,000)

Q19) you have delivery of product in next 2/3 days. Have people already overworked. Your budget does not allow including new team member. You are finding that each test cycle is finding new defects. As a PM how u will ensure that schedule is met and product quality is high?
a)     Arrange team meeting. Tell importance and urgency.
b)     Listen to concerns and opinions of team members
c)     Have quick awareness session on type of defects. Use pareto analysis to find  out critical defects
d)     Concentrate on root cause of defects
e)     State severity and priority
f)       Assign / change task and schedule
g)     Give Motivation to team members
h)     Aware customer about current status
 Q20) what is management by fact?


Management by fact is using quantitative measures and metrics to manage the

Planning, execution, and reporting of software testing.

 Q21) what are the three types of interfaces?


a)                  Person/Machine - Interfaces that include the operating system and the development languages that are available, as well as the input/output facilities.

b)                  Communications Interfaces - Interfaces that include transmission of information between computers and remote equipment (e.g., transmission of computer data over networks.)

c)                  Program Interfaces - Interfaces for the exchange of information, whether on the same computer, or distributed across multiple tiers of the application architecture.

 Q22) what three rules should be followed for all reviews?


a)     Review the Product not the author

b)     Focus on Defect

c)                   Overall responsibility as a team

 Q23) what ‘stage containment’ is as referred to reviews?


Identifying defects in the stage in which they were created, rather than in later testing stages.


Q24) what is meant by error seeding and fault injection?


Error Seeding: Error Seeding is a statistical method used to assess the number and characteristics of the faults remaining in the program. First faults are seeded into the program. Then the program is tested and the number of faults discovered is used to estimate the number of faults yet undiscovered. A difficulty with this technique is this that the seeded errors should represent the yet undiscovered errors.


Fault Injection: An incorrect step, process or data definition in a program (code).  The outgrowths of a mistake produce by a human action that produces the incorrect result (a failure e.g. a fault causing an OS to lock-up.) Fault injection has been extensively used in the last decade to evaluate fault tolerance mechanisms and to assess the impact of faults in the systems. A measure issue is to assure that the injected faults are representative of actual faults, as this is the necessary condition to obtain meaningful results. First faults are seeded into the program. Then the program is tested and the number of faults discovered is used to estimate the number of faults yet undiscovered.


Q25) If you happen to be the customer/user of the software, what are (your) the responsibilities for software acceptance?


a)     Creation (or Update/review) of Acceptance Test Plan

b)     Resource and Schedule for Acceptance Testing

c)     Special Data collection for Acceptance Testing

d)     Training Logistics for Acceptance Testing

e)     Following Standard Practices while carrying out any tasks.


Q26) List the concerns that testers face in assuring that the test plan will be complete.


a)     Not Enough Training

b)     Us versus Them mentality

c)     Lack of Test Tools

d)     Lack of Management Understanding/Support of testing

e)     Lack of Customer and User Involvement

f)       Not Enough Time for testing

g)     Over Reliance On Independent Testers

h)     Rapid Changes

i)        Testers Are in a Lose-Lose Situations

j)       Having to Say ‘No’


Q27) List the input(s) used in developing the test plan.


a)     Software Contract

b)     Software Project Plan ( Which contains Project Schedule)

c)     Requirements Document

d)     Design Document


Q28) List the considerations in Developing Testing Methodologies?


a)     Acquire and study the test strategy

b)     Determine the type of developing project

c)     Determine the type of software system

d)     Determine the project scope.

e)     Identify the tactical risks

f)       Determine when testing should occur

g)     Build the system test plan.

h)     Build the unit test plan.


Q29) what qualities must an individual possess to test effectively a software application?


a)      Good Communication Skill

b)      Good Error Guessing

c)      Good Analytical Skill

d)      Knowledge of Programming Concepts


Q30) what is the role of an independent test group (ITG)?


The main role is to ensure that quality is measured accurately. Since they are independent they give unbiased opinion about the product quality. They are independent as they report to different person/group whom development team reports.

Q31) what are the acceptance requirements that a system must meet in acceptance testing?


Acceptance requirements that a system must meet can be divided in 4 categories:

a)                  Functionality requirements, which relate to the business rules that the system must execute.

b)                  Performance requirements, which relate to operational requirements such as time or resource constraints.

c)                  Interface quality requirements, which relate to a connection to another component of processing.

d)                    Overall software quality requirements are those that specify limits for factors or attributes such as reliability, testability, correctness, and usability.

Q32) what is a System Boundary Diagram?  Give an example.


A System Boundary Diagram depicts the interfaces between the software being tested and the individuals, systems, and other interfaces.  The purpose of the system boundary diagram is to establish the scope of the system and to identify the interfaces that need to be developed.

 Example: System Boundary Diagram for an automated teller machine (ATM).


Q33) what are the contents of a Software/Test Matrix?


Test Matrix is a Table (or an arrangement), which contains different Modules to be tested as Rows and Types of Testing techniques to be conducted as Columns. One or more kind of testing techniques can be conducted for one module.


Q34) Name the causes from which most of the testing problems occur?


a)     Failure to define Test Objectives.

b)     Lack of support from Development Team.

c)     Lack of Training.

d)     Lack of use of effective techniques.




Q35) Define cost-effective perspective in testing?


Cost Effective way of Testing is a way to achieve maximum advantage out of testing which means that Cost of Conduction Testing is less than the loss due to undetected defects.

Q36) Draw the Testing Cost Curve and the Optimum Test (where it occurs).


Q37) Mention the stages of a traditional software development life cycle?


a.      Conception

b.      Initiation

c.      Requirement

d.      Design

e.      Testing

f.       Implementation

g.      Retirement


Q38) Prepare a check list for the developers on unit testing before the application comes to testing department



a)     All Programs are Compiled successfully

b)     All Programs are commented properly.

c)     All Programs do not have spelling mistakes and grammar errors in comments.

d)     All program names in Build are same as in Release Notes.

e)     Online Help exists for each program unit.(for each page if applicable)

f)       User Manual does contain all program names and associated text.


GUI Interface

a)     Background and Foreground color combination suits the eyes

b)     Program works in all screen resolution modes

c)     Program does not contain orphan/broken web links

d)     Application does not raise any critical error message ( It should be returned to developer if continuously severe errors encountered)



Q39) Write any attributes which will impact the testing process


a)                  Maintainability

b)                  Reliability

c)                  Correctness

d)                  Flexibility


Q40) Difference between Static Testing and Dynamic Testing
Static testing could be termed as the Verification process where in the
work products or the plans or any documents made by or for testers are
tested (more so, verified).Dynamic testing could be termed as the Validation process, where the actual testing of the application happens. All the testing phases (unit, integration and system) come under dynamic testing.

Q41) Explain any 3 section of Unit Test Plan

a) planning for the software that would be required for performing the
testing. This is one of the most important aspects of test planning. Here we decide
upon the tools that would be necessary to perform the testing at various phases.
b) Criteria for accepting applications for testing. Before accepting an application for testing, certain criteria needs to be fulfilled by the development team to accept it for
testing. They could be: Clean and descriptive codes (following the coding standards of the organization), unit test should have been performed on the code, reviews and walkthroughs should have happened on the code etc.
c) Identifying the appropriate personnel and allocating the same.

Q42) Difference between Load testing and Stress testing?


A.    Stress testing is subjecting a system to an unreasonable load

while denying it the resources (e.g., RAM, disc, mips, interrupts,etc.) needed to process that load.  The idea is to stress a system to the breaking point in order to find bugs that will make that break potentially harmful.  The system is not expected to process the overload without adequate resources, but to behave (e.g., fail) in a

decent manner (e.g., not corrupting or losing data).  Bugs and failure modes discovered under stress testing may or  may not be repaired depending on the application, the failure mode, consequences, etc.  The load (incoming transaction stream) in stress testing is often deliberately distorted so as to force the system into resource depletion.


B.    Load testing is subjecting a system to a statistically representative (usually) load.  The two main reasons for using such loads is in support of software reliability testing and in performance testing.  The term "load testing" by itself is too vague and imprecise to warrant use.  For example, do you mean representative load," "overload," "high load," etc.  In performance testing, load is varied from a minimum (zero) to the maximum level the system can sustain without running out of resources or having, transactions suffer (application-specific) excessive delay.


C. Performance testing: - Performance testing is basically the process of understanding how the application and its operating environment respond at various user load levels. In general, we want to measure the latency, throughput, and utilization of resources.

Q43) what can be done if requirements are changing continuously?



1.      Work with the project's stakeholders early on to understand how requirements might change so that alternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance, if possible.

2.      It's helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability so that later changes do not require redoing the application from scratch.

3.      If the code is well-commented and well-documented this makes changes easier for the developers.

4.      Use rapid prototyping whenever possible to help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes.

5.      The project's initial schedule should allow for some extra time commensurate with the possibility of changes.

6.      Try to move new requirements to a 'Phase 2' version of an application, while using the original requirements for the 'Phase 1' version.

7.      Negotiate to allow only easily-implemented new requirements into the project, while moving more difficult new requirements into future versions of the application.

8.      Be sure that customers and management understand the scheduling impacts, inherent risks, and costs of significant requirements changes. Then let management or the customers (not the developers or testers) decide if the changes are warranted - after all, that's their job.

9.      Balance the effort put into setting up automated testing with the expected effort required to re-do them to deal with changes.

10.  Try to design some flexibility into automated test scripts.

11.  Focus initial automated testing on application aspects that are most likely to remain unchanged.

12.  Devote appropriate effort to risk analysis of changes to minimize regression testing needs.

13.  Design some flexibility into test cases (this is not easily done; the best bet might be to minimize the detail in the test cases, or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans)

14.  Focus less on detailed test plans and test cases and more on ad hoc testing (with an understanding of the added risk that this entails).




















Q44) Write a sample test policy?
Ans44: Test Policy is management’s definition of testing for a department.


Sample Test Policy



Testing Definition:

   Determination of the validity of the computer solution to a business 



Testing System:

   Development and execution of a test plan in accordance with

   Departmental procedures and user requirements.


Measurement of Testing

  Cost of undetected defects.


Testing Standards

   One defects per 250 executable program statements.



Q45) Characteristics of Good Test Cases (TC) are?


a) A good test case has a high probability of finding errors.
b) It is traceable to the requirements.
c) It has all the characteristics of a good requirement. i.e., it is clear, correct and unambiguous.
d) It should be repetable

Q46) Draw a pictorial diagram of a report you would create for developers to determine project status?

a. Draw a pictorial diagram of a report you would create for developers to determine project status

b. Draw a pictorial diagram of a report you would create for users and management to show project status

















Individual project status report



Date:-04/12/2004                          Y2k                        Quick Status   




General Information                         Project target date:-



This project requires a detailed analysis of all systems to identify any areas where the century data change from 1999 to 2000 will create system problem or inaccurate results. All program must be modified accordingly to deal with the century change.



Current Phase:- Planning

Project start date:3/1/03    Project start date   :3/1/03  Original budget        : $5,00,000

Original target date:8/31/03 Original Target date:12/31/03Current budget    : $8,00,000

Current target date:8/31/03  Current Target date:12/31/03Expenses to date: $1,00,000



                                    2004                          2005                            2006

Project Activity  M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N








Essential Elements of Information



Project scheduled



Meets performance requirement



Project with costs


Overrun amount $



Scope change cost $



Total variance









Appropriate team was form in march to coordinate efforts between I/S and user department. As an initial planning step. I/S representative will inventory all mission-critical non-I/S supported system. Such as based systems.







Major Y2K Project Status Report

                                                                               Date:- 5/31/1998


Period              Cat       M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M


1. Customer billing           T                                                             Tgt









1. Customer billing           T                                                             Tgt










1. Customer billing           T                                                             Tgt










Legend     Category Codes            Code :   Good        Caution        Alert

                 T= Technical status                 (Green)     (Yellow)       (Red)

                 S= Scheduled Status

                 B= Budget Status



Q47) it is being observed that in a project cost of testing is very high. After going in detail it was found that the testers are testing the software which is not left with many defects. How will you make sure that this is correct?  three ways? What are the disadvantages of Over Testing?


a)     Disadvantages of Over-Testing:

b)     Wastage of precious Test Time

c)     Wastage of scarce Test Resources, and Test Environment

d)     Less ROI

e)     Distraction (to over-test) could cause some important applications components to get under-tested


How to make sure it is corrected:-

a)     Have clear policies when to Stop Testing. (Read other Answers for details on this)

b)     Have Standards/Procedures to make sure this Policy is followed. Reward and punish the people who follow and who don't follow this, respectively, over a period of time.

c)     Have historical data on expected defect rates, and police the Test effort when the rate goes much lower

d)     Review the Test Results Report and the end of every week, and approve further testing only if desirable


Q48) you find that the senior testers are making more mistakes then junior testers; you need to communicate this aspect to the senior tester. Also, you don't want to loose this tester. How should one go about the constructive criticism?


a)     Do it privately

b)     Have the facts

c)     Be prepared to help the worker to improve his/her performance

d)     Be specific on expectations

e)     Follow the specific process in giving the criticsm

1)     state the positive first

2)     Indicate the deficiencies with product or services produced by individual

3)     Get agreement that there is a problem

4)     Ask the subordinate for advice how to improve his/her performance

5)     If the is unable to solve suggest the cource

6)     Make a specific “contract” regarding what will happened after the session

7)      Avoid the threat


Q49) how will you ensure the effectiveness, efficiency and total coverage of a model with lots of fields, data, and interdependent paths between them?


First consider risk associated when fields are added

a) Test Factors you have to consider and draw a matrix
b) Testing go for Reliability
c) Effectiveness and efficiency test coverage is calculated
d) Regression, Stress, Black box testing is performed

White box testing can be useful to do these:

A) Unit testing - covers a) statement coverage b) path coverage c) loop testing d) code coverage e) condition coverage f) branch coverage

B) Integration testing - data navigation from one module to another module since the model consists of different fields


Q50) Put the following testing types in order and give a brief description of each System testing, acceptance testing, unit testing, integration testing, and benefits realization testing. (10 points)



1) Unit testing:-

Testing Individual Programs, modules, or components to demonstrate that the work package executes per specification, and validate the design and technical quality of the application. The focus is on ensuring that he detailed logic within the component is accurate and reliable according to pre-determined specifications. Testing stubs or drivers may be used to simulate behavior of interfacing models.


2) Integration testing:-

This test begins after two or more programs or application components have been successfully unit tested. It is conducted by the development team to validate the technical quality or design of the application. It is the first level of testing which formally integrates a set of programs that communicate among themselves via messages or files (a client and its server(s), a string of batch programs, or a set of on-line modules within a dialog or conversation.)


3) System testing:-

During this event, the entire system is tested to verify that all functional, information, structural and quality requirements have been met. A Predetermined combination of tests is designed that, when executed successfully, satisfy management that the system meets specifications. System testing verifies the functional quality of the system in addition to all external interfaces, manual procedures, restart and recovery, and human-computer interfaces. It also verifies that interfaces between the application and the open environment work correctly, that JCL functions correctly, and that the application functions appropriately with the Database Management System, Operations Environment, and any communications system.


4) Acceptance testing

Main objective acceptance testing is ensure all the functionalities and requirement are implemented correctly or not. In Acceptance testing real time test data is used, usually acceptance testing is done by client or client’s representative. Here client will check the all the functionalities.


Q51) Describe automated capture/playback tools and list the benefits of using them. (10 points)


Capture/playback tools capture or record the actions performed during a test session into software-like scripts that can be replayed against the same or an updated version of the software, allowing a comparison of identical test results.

A difference in test results may indicate the presence of a regression defect



a)     Automating testing reduces testing errors

b)     Maintainable, extendible and reusable Test Automation solutions

c)     Automation enables repeatable testing process

d)     Free up testers to focus on higher risk exploratory testing

e)     Reduce testing costs for regression, acceptance and other repetitive tests

f)       Discover the benefits of using Automated Regression Tests in your rapid release schedule

g)     Be able to make Automated Testing decisions that yield positive return-on-testing investment

h)     Complete testing coverage is a more readily achievable goal with an automated suite of test tools


Q52) List what you think are the 4 primary goals of testing. (5 or 10 points)



          Determine if system meets specs

                   Determine if system meets business / user needs


Secondary     Raising issues / instilling confidence in system/ insight into s/w delivery process /improve test process.


Other primary goal – User Satisfaction & Cost Reduction


Q53) Write test plan considerations for testing of a system with highly interdependent and complex data model in nature. (It has lot of variables, fields, constraints, mathematical processing and so on) and the scope of the project has been modified by the customer without any additional time allotted. What approach should be taken to test the system?


a) Since the scope of the project has been modified by the customer without any additional time allotted, test plan is to be designed in such a way that it covers all the major fundamentals functionality, modules and the software stress will be given on testing those modules.

b) Since the product has complex data in mature constraint violation test maintainability and reliability tests should also be carried out.

1) Test based on table relations

2) Boundary value analysis / Equivalence partitioning

3) Performance of system (time taken to complex data)

4) Since complex database is used load/stress test, recovery test should be performed


Q54) Give MEASUREMENTS for a] Test Effectiveness and b] Test Efficiency


Effectiveness - How well the user achieves the goals they set out to achieve using the system (process).

Efficiency - The resources consumed in order to achieve their goals.


In Software field, these terms are primarily used to indicate the effort put in to develop the Software and How much is customer satisfied with the product.
Effectiveness signifies how well the customer requirements have been met i.e. does the final product provides the solution to the Customer problem effectively.
Efficiency is something, which is internal to the Organization that produced the Software product. It is basically- how efficiently the available resources (time, hardware, personnel, expertise etc.) were utilized to create the Software product.
Thus, Effectiveness of Software is a measure of Customer response on meeting product's requirements and Efficiency is a measure of optimum utilization of resources to create the Software product.
Effective - producing a powerful effect
Efficient - producing results with little wasted effort

James efficiently made the calls he had wanted to make. Robert didn't make the calls he had planned to make, but effectively met his sales quota by profiting from a chance encounter with a business acquaintance.
Key Point 
When you're effective, you are able to accomplish the worthwhile goal you've chosen. When you're efficient, you quickly carry out actions. You won't be effective, however, unless those actions result in your achieving a meaningful goal.

Test Effectiveness = ((Defects removed in a phase) / (Defect injected + Defect escaped)) * 100
Test Efficiency = (Test Defects / (Test Defects + Acceptance Defects)) * 100

The Test defects = Unit + Integration + System defects
Acceptance Defects = Bugs found by the customer


Q55) what are the indicators of “Over-Testing”?


a) When functions / attributes which are not included in requirement are tested.

b) When you are running out of scheduled

c) Testing cost exceeds the cost of defect uncovered

d) Unnecessary use of test resources are used


Q56) Testing is expensive. How would you ensure that your applications are not ‘over tested’?   15 marks


a) Define objectives of testing

b) Define test techniques for testing

c) Define testing standards to use while doing testing

d) Measure the effectiveness of testing

e) Define the optimum point for testing

f) Define resources required for testing

g) Define the accepted number of defects and acceptance severity of defects

h) Have clear policies when to Stop Testing


Q57) Differentiate between verification and validation.   5 marks


S no.




Verification is a static testing procedure.


Validation is dynamic testing procedure.


It involves verifying the requirements, detailed design documents, test plans, walkthroughs and inspections of various documents produced 
during the development and testing process.

Validation involves actual testing of the product as per the test
plan (unit test, integration test, system test and acceptance test etc).


It is a preventive procedure.

It is a corrective procedure.



Are we building the product RIGHT?

Are we building the RIGHT product?


It involves more then two to three persons and is a group activity.

It involves the testers and sometimes user.


It is also called Human testing, since it involves finding the errors by persons participating in a review or walk through.

 It is also called Computer testing, since errors are found out by testing the software on a computer.


Verification occurs on Requirements, Design and code.

Validation occurs only on code and the executable application.



Verification is made both in the Executable and Non Executable forms of a work product

Validation is done only on Executable forms of a work product.



Verification finds errors early in the requirement & design phase and hence reduces the cost of errors.

Validation finds errors only during the testing stage and hence cost of errors reduced is less than Verification.



An effective tool for verification tool is a Checklist.


Various manual and automated test tools are available for Validation.


It requires cooperation and scheduling of meetings and discussions.

It is to check that the product satisfies the requirements and is accepted by the user.



Verification tasks include:

1) Planning 2) Execution


Validation tasks include:

1) Planning 2) Testware Development

 3) Test Execution 4) Testware Maintenance



Verification activities include: 1) Requirements Verification

2) Functional design verification 3) Internal Design Verification

4) Code Verification


Validation activities include:

1) Unit testing 2) Usability testing

3) Function testing 4) System testing 5) Acceptance testing


Verification deliverables (work products) are:

1) Verification test plan

2) Inspection report

3) Verification test report

Validation deliverables are:

 1) Test plan 2) Test Design Specification

 3) Test Case Specification 4) Test Procedure Specification

 5) Test log 6) Test incident report


Q58) Developers want to conduct Unit Testing. Specify – a] Considerations for Unit testing objectives b] Suggest appropriate Unit testing coverage techniques c] What are the indicators / measures for the same? D] How will you ensure that policy is being achieved?     


Unit Testing is the earliest stage of testing and is most cost effective testing stage in removing defects. In later stages of testing, detecting and fixing defects is more difficult involving increased effort and time. Unit testing takes significant time and effort. Unit testing must employ Functional, Structural and Heuristic testing techniques to be effective against the different types of defects. Though effective tools have not supported testing so far, promising test automation tools are beginning to be available. Unit testing can be very effective and affordable. It will result in reduction of total efforts while simultaneously increasing the quality of the product significantly also reducing in the long-term maintenance cost and the total life cycle cost. CAST Tools are becoming the key to solve the major problems faced by Unit testers.


Functional testing Techniques (Some examples)


Boundary Value Analysis: Testing the edge conditions of boundaries

Equivalence Partitioning: Grouping test cases into classes in which executing one test cases is equivalent to executing any other test cases in the same group

Cause Effect Graphing: When the behavior of the unit under test is specified as cause and effect. Design test cases that validate this relationship.

Structural test Cases Techniques

Statement Coverage: Identify Test cases such that every line of code is executed in one test case or other.

Branch Coverage: Identify Test cases such that every branch of code is executed in one test case or other. 100% Branch Coverage automatically assures 100% Statement Coverage.

Condition Coverage: Identify Test cases such that condition in each predicate expression is evaluated in all possible ways.

Modified Condition-Decision Coverage: Identify Test cases such that each Boolean operand can independently affect the outcome of a decision.


For more info http://www.deccanetworld.com/sublinks/whitepapers/unit_testing.htm


Q59) You are testing software for aero plane takeoff and landing. Design a test strategy to test it.  – 15 marks


The Aero plane takeoffs and landing is a very critical program as human lives are affected, correctness, reliability, continuity of process, recovery and security are the factors to be addressed while creating test strategy. Exhaustive Test should be done since it’s a life-threatening software product. The test case coverage should be 100% with respect to total program. The program should be Defect free.

a)     Set up test environment that simulates production environment. Test System on live data.

b)     Recovery Test for failure

c)     Stress Test

d)     Security Test

e)     Performance Test

f)       Ad-hoc Test

g)     Fault seeding



Q60) Difference Between QA & QC?



Quality Control

Quality Assurance


QC is about checking at the end of some development process (eg- a design activity ) that we have built quality in i.e. that we have achieved the required quality with our methods.

QA is about having an overall development and management process that provides right environment for ensuring quality of final product.


QC is like testing a module against requirement specification or design document , measuring response time , throughput etc.

QA gives us added assurance that the whole producing or checking process is properly planned and executed and thus maintaining high quality.

What id does

To check that the modern methods of software development are largely designed to ensure right quality is achieved. QC checks that these methods are in place and to discover where they are not then corrections are to be made.

It gives us added assurance that the while producing / checking process is being properly planned and executed and hence is keeping high our chances of producing software of required quality.


Define features and levels  Define feature check procedure Carrying out the check procedure Record the result  take and record any corrective action taken.

1. determination of quality policy through Quality Management System    2. Checking that predetermined Quality control activities are being properly taken care off.

Best carried out on

QC is best carried out on products

QA is best carried out on process.

Phase of implementation

QA should be done at end of every SDLC i.e. when product building is complete.

QC should take place at every stage of SDLC.


Structured walkthrough, Fagan Techniques are some of  QC techniques.

Quality policy defined and generally implemented in the form of Quality Management System is used to carry out QA.


Q61) In your organization, testers are delivering code for system testing without performing unit testing. Give an example of test policy in this matter.
Ans61: Test Policy is management’s definition of testing for a department.







Sample Test Policy



Testing Definition:

   Determination that the code is unit tested before delivering it
for system testing.


Testing System:

Development and execution of a unit test plan in accordance with
Departmental procedures and user requirements.


Measurement of Testing

Costs of correcting defects found because of process error and
logical errors in code. or No of defects found in unit testing Vs
number of defects expected.

Defects found in Unit test.
Defects originated in Unit test but found in Subsequent phases.
Cost of Unit testing = Cost of Unit testing versus
Number of defects in Unit test.


Testing Standards

   There should not be more than five percent of defects which have been undetected in Unit test phase and caught in subsequent phases.



Q62) What if the application has functionality that was not mentioned in the requirements?


Get all the stakeholders involved i.e. customers, users, etc Review the functionality with them. If they are in consensus that it is a value added allow the functionality to remain and update the help and release notes. If they are not in consensus log that functionality as a defect and ask the developers to resolve it “First” that a defect should be opened and THEN go through the other steps of contacting the stakeholders through the PM, etc…. Should the functionality need to stay, a change request is accomplished. If not, the defect is addressed by removing the functionality. However, either way – the defect would be opened first, would it not, in order to track the progress of addressing the issue.


Q63) Your Company is about to roll out an E-Commerce application. It is not possible to test the application on all types of browsers on all platforms and operating systems. What steps would you take in the testing environment to reduce the business risks and commercial risks?


a)     Scoring of browsers and OS, High ranked Browsers and OS do Browers compatibility test for them

b)     State that it does not support to other OS and browsers, if risk is involved.

c)     Commercial Risk: Ensure competitive look and feel, Easy Navigation

d)     Business Risk: Ensure Transaction Correctness, Security (data), transactions, roll back procedure etc

e)     Proper Authorization in Place

f)       Response time (performance)

The test engineers should first make down the list of all browsers like IE Netscape Mozilla etc with their different versions in the market. Then they should see which all versions are being used by the prospective customers. In this way they can chop out some of the browser version from the list. Then they should check out which browser has which changes over its previous version if the changes are small then these can also be chopped off.
But the test manager should let the management know that this list is not exhaustive and let them know the risk factor. Anyway by this way we can only reduce the risk but cannot eliminate the risk completely.

Also we can rank the browsers and as per the ranking assign resources for testing of each browser.


Q64) it has been observed that testers in your organization are performing tests on the deliverables even after significant defects have been found. This has resulted in unnecessary testing of little value because re-testing needs to be done after defects have been rectified. You as the test manager are going to update the test plan with recommendations on when to stop testing. List what recommendations you are going to make?


a)     When cost of testing exceeds the value obtained from the defects uncovered, stop testing.

b)     All high priority bugs fixed and regressed.

c)     Testing objectives are met.

d)     Budget constraints.

e)     Deadline

f)       Complete coverage of all the requirements, functionalities.

g)     If any medium or low priority errors are outstanding, it must be documented and signed off. 

When the test engineers have found the good number of critical bugs then the they should not test the same build / software version till the bugs are fixed. So in the time between the test report is submitted and the time testing team gets the fix of those bugs the test manager should ask team members to focus on others things such as

a)     Making test cases (as the newer software version will get immune to the earlier test cases)

b)     Should focus on automation.

c)     Making test strategy to break the software.


Q65) the developers in your company do not believe in testing their code or doing unit testing. Explain the need of unit testing? To change this trend your company has implemented a process. What steps will you as a Test Manager take to ensure compliance of the process?

Ans65: Need of unit testing:


a)     Unit testing gives programmers measurable confidence in the source code they produce.

b)     Unit testing uncovers defects in source code shortly after it is written, which saves valuable time and resources, sometimes by orders of magnitude.

c)     Unit testing significantly reduces the amount of debugging necessary by avoiding defects in the first place and by catching those that do occur while they are relatively easy to detect and fix.

d)     Unit testing avoids the practice of testing everything at once when it is significantly more expensive in terms of cost, development team morale, and customer satisfaction.

e)     Unit testing helps you focus on exactly what is important for a module so that when all of your tests run successfully, you can be reasonably sure that your module has no major defects.


Following steps should be taken to ensure compliance of the process:

a)     Conduct reviews to ensure compliance with the process.

b)     Make sure everyone understands the process and advantages of unit testing and follow the process.

c)     Appreciate the employees who are following the process to encourage those employees as well as others to follow the process.


Q66) what steps are needed to develop and run software test?


1. Determine the current status of your capabilities. This involves understanding the capabilities of your testing process as well as the capabilities of your individual testers.

2. Establish improvement goals. Determine and define the type of testing organization you would like to have in your organization, as well as skill sets needed by your testers.

3. Develop a plan to achieve your testing goals. The plan should be a Well defined series of tests that will take you from where you are to where you want to be..


Q67) Explain points in favor of testing by Developing Team tem selves & testing Independent team?


Development Teams:


a)     Minimize the cost of Testing.

b)     Gain knowledge of other parts of project.

c)     Trains developers in good test methods.



a)     Improper use of development process may not be detected.

b)     Individual may be BLINDED into accepting erroneous system specification & coding.

c)     They are optimistic in their ability to do defect free work & thus underestimate the need for extensive testing.

d)     Without a formal division between Development & Test, an individual may be tempted to improved the system structure & documentation rather than allocate the time an effort to test.


Independent Team


a)     Unbiased assessment of quality of the application.

b)     Bring an independent perspective to the test process.

c)     Group comprised of professionals who have specialized in area of testing, have extensive testing experience in multiple projects. Thus are better able to construct and execute tests.



a)     Additional cost required to establish and administer a testing function.

b)     Development team may place too much reliance on the test team and thus fail to perform adequate testing themselves, resulting in overburdening testers.

c)     Competition between testers and developers results in breakdown of cooperation making it difficult for testers to function properly.


Q68) if you company is going to conduct a review meeting, what position would u select in the review committee and why?

Ans68: I am going to play the role of Moderator.

Because the moderator leads the team and is responsible for ensuring that a good inspection is achieved. Because this role is critical to the formal inspection process, training for moderators is more important and extensive than that of other inspectors. The moderator is directly active in all stages of the inspection process except rework. Since acting as a moderator is time consuming and requires specific skills, moderators often are selected and trained by the development organization and then assigned to a specific development project. Primary duties of the moderator include coordinating the selection of the inspection team, assigning team roles, and leading the team throughout the process. A major function of the moderator is to ensure that the team keeps its emotions in check and that the inspection meeting is not used to find faults with the author. The moderator is also responsible for assuring inspection data are collected on the inspection report forms.


Q69: How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?

Ans69: The main area of testing that OO impacts on is Unit Testing, where the programmer will design Test Cases based on knowledge of the structure and function of the code, and to a lesser extent, on Integration Testing.

Well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. If the application was well-designed this can simplify test design.


Q70) Explain what testing tool you will buy for Client Server testing & WHY?

Ans70: We’ll buy following testing tools for client server testing:

1)     Load/Stress Testing Tools: Example Astra Site Test by Mercury Interactive, Silk Performer by Seague Software to evaluate web based systems when subjected to large volumes of data of transactions.

2)     Performance Testing: Example Load Runner to see the performance of the client server system.

3)     UI testing: Example Win Runner by Mercury Interactive to perform UI testing.


Q71) Explain what testing tool you will buy for WEB testing & WHY?

Ans71: We’ll buy following testing tools for web testing:

1)     HTML Test Tools: Example Doctor HTML by Imagineware to perform a verification of HTML if we don’t have an HTML checker with web development packages.

2)     Site Validation: Example SQA Site check by Rational Software to identify inconsistencies and errors such as Moved pages, Orphaned pages, Broken Links.

3)     Load/Stress Testing Tools: Example Astra Site Test by Mercury Interactive, Silk Performer by Seague Software to evaluate web based systems when subjected to large volumes of data of transactions.

4)     Test Case Generators: Example Astra Quick Test by Mercury Interactive to create transactions for use in testing. This tool tells what to test, as well as create test cases that can be used in other test tools.


Q72) Suppose you have written a project status report for expected defects vs. Actual defects, using testing metrics.  If you PM ask, you to explain how to read this report, what recommendations would you give her/his?


If expected rate is higher than the actual rate that means the testing activity has been not performed thoroughly. If actual rate is higher than the expected rate then a very inexperienced team is developing the software. So accordingly take the appropriate corrective measures.



Q73) what is extreme programming and what does it have to do with testing?

Ans73: Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development approach for small teams on risk-prone projects with unstable requirements. Testing ('extreme testing') is a core aspect of Extreme Programming. Programmers are expected to write unit and functional test code first - before the application is developed. Test code is under source control along with the rest of the code. Customers are expected to be an integral part of the project team and to help develop scenarios for acceptance/black box testing. Acceptance tests are preferably automated, and are modified and rerun for each of the frequent development iterations. QA and test personnel are also required to be an integral part of the project team. Detailed requirements documentation is not used, and frequent re-scheduling, re-estimating, and re-prioritizing is expected.


Q74) how will you ensure requirements document is complete?


a) By reviewing initiation document and ensuring that they are all mapped into a Requirement matrix.

Requirement matrix should have following subsections

A) Functional requirements

B) Usability requirements

c) Performance requirements

D) Security requirements

E) Interpretability requirements


Q75) Name the 5 errors tester makes?


a)     wrong selection of testing techniques

b)     Looking but not seeing

c)     Wrongly executing test cases without knowing

d)     Reporting wrong status of testing

e)     Creation of wrong test environment

f)       Unable to clearly report a defect


Q76) Difference between structural v/s functional testing?


a)     Structural analysis based test sets tend to uncover errors that occur during “coding” of the program. While functional analysis based test set tend to uncover error that occur in implementing requirement or design specification

b)     Functional testing ensures that the requirements are properly satisfied by the application system. The functions are those tasks that the system is design to accomplish.

c)     Functional testing is not concerned with how processing occurs, but rather with the results of processing

d)     Structural analysis used primarily during the coding phase.


Q77) what is software quality? What are the characteristics of software quality?


Quality is frequently defined as meeting the customer’s requirement the first and every time.


a)     Transcendent – I know when I see it

b)     Product based – possess desired feature

c)     User based – fitness for use

d)     Development and manufacturing based – conforms to requirement

e)     Value based – at an acceptable cost


Q78) what is test strategy? List the four components of a good test strategy?

Ans78: A test strategy is a statement of the overall approach to testing, identifying what levels of testing are to be applied and the method, techniques and tool to be used.

a) Critical success factor

b) Risk analysis

c) Assumptions

d) Methodology to be followed


Q79)  what is decision/ branch coverage for all strategy?

And79: The kind of testing seeks to ensure that every branch has been executed. Branch coverage can be tested by probes inserted at points in the program that represent arcs from branch points in the flow graph.


Q80) List the three types of review?


a)     Peer review

b)     SQA review

c)     Project review


Q81) what are the three most common phase end review?


a)     Requirement review

b)     Design review

c)     Code review


Q82) what are the three reasons why people don’t listen well?


a)     the speaker may not be taking about a topic of interest to them

b)     they are impatient and have a lot of other stimuli going through their minds

c)     they are too busy rehashing what they will say next


Q83) You as the quality assurance manager at the APEX company; one of your assurance analysts is engaged in a dispute with a developer over the cause of a defect reported by the analyst. What can / should you do?


You should discuss the defect report with QA analyst to ensure that the information is correct and root-cause analysis was conducted. If it is clearly a case of developer error then have both people discuss and come to an effective resolution. Record the defect & status.


Q84) briefly describe the difference between automated and manual testing tools. Give two examples each?


Manual tools do not execute program code and do not require executing software, automated tool do.

Manual – Review and Check sheet

Automated – Code coverage analyzer and File comparison


Q85) what is software configuration management? List the configuration items?

Ans85: Configuration management / control are a systematic way of controlling the changes to the software items.


a)     All types of plans (project, test etc.)

b)     S/w code

c)     Test scripts & test cases documents

d)     Defect log

e)     Test reports

f)       User documentation


Q86) What if project isn’t big enough to justify extensive testing?

Ans86: Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing is till not justified, risk analysis is again needed and the same considerations as described previously in apply. The tester might then do ad-hoc testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk anlaysis.

Q87) what if the software is so buggy it can’t really be tested at all?

Ans87: the best bet in this situation is for the tester to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect scheduled and indicates deeper problems in the software development process (such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing or poor design, improper build or release procedures etc.) mangers should be notified and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.



30 October 2011 at 07:49

Amazing collection of questions!!

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